The Cisco-Linksys SRWxxxx series of switches have a simple web interface for management purposes. The interface lacks the ability to see the MAC address table. You can SSH or telnet to the switch, but the menu you get is no better. However there is a hidden CLI (called the lcli, I assume that stands for Linksys CLI) you can access that will allow you additional management capabilities. Once you are logged into an SSH or telnet session and are at the menu, do the following:


Type Ctrl+Z

Hit Enter once

Type in your username and hit Enter


It will not prompt for the password but it will give you a <hostname># prompt. From here, you can type ? see the available commands. To see the MAC-address table, type show bridge address-table.

0 Comments   Networking Cisco Linksys


Windows 10 ships with the OneNote app. If you also have OneNote 2016 installed on your computer, you will end up having two OneNote applications installed. The Windows 10 OneNote app is quite often set as the default version, so when attempting to follow a link from someone else, the Windows 10 OneNote app opens and asks you to log in. People who are familiar with OneNote 2016 are completely lost and stuck at this point.


To change the default version to OneNote 2016, go to your Start Menu, then choose Settings. Select System, choose ‘Default apps’ and then scroll to the bottom of the list to find ‘Set defaults by app’ entry. Click on this link and in the list under ‘Set your default programs’, find the OneNote (desktop) version, and select ‘Set this program as default’. Click OK to save your changes.

0 Comments   Networking Windows 10 OneNote


While working with a customer who was searching for a solution to help manage distribution groups, I discovered that Exchange provides a feature called Dynamic Distribution Groups. These groups allow you to set up the distribution group, and then create a rule that references something like an OU or an AD account property to define which users belong to that group.

Here is a link to the TechNet article about Dynamic Distribution Groups:

0 Comments   Networking Exchange


I recenly rebuilt a vCenter environment for a customer. We decided to use the vCenter Server Appliance 6.5. The configuration of the vCenter Server Appliance was fairly simple and operates very similar to vCenter Server installed on Windows. We attempted to setup email alerts, but were unable to get the alerts to send. We initially thought the alerts would not send due to an issue with the SMTP relay. Since this was not a Windows OS, I was not able to login to the OS and test the STMP relay using telnet. I checked my configuration of email alerts several times and the administrator of the SMTP servers checked his as well and everything looked correct on both sides, but emails still would not send.

After researching for quite some time, I found that I could use the "mailq" command to view the email queue on the vCenter Server Appliance. I connected to the vCenter Server Appliance via SSH, ran the "shell" command to get to the full shell, and then ran the "mailq" command. This showed me that several messages were in the mail queue and not being sent. I began to troubleshoot this more and eventually found an VMWare article regarding a bug in the vCenter Server Appliance 6.5 that prevented SMTP from working correctly. This article had been published one day before I found it, which was about a month after I first started troubleshooting the issue. From looking at the files, the original code had the wrong patch in the file. 

Here is a link to the VMWare article with instructions on how to fix the bug:

The following must be done to successfully SCP the file to the vCenter Server Appliance:

0 Comments   Networking Email VMware vCenter


After a software update on a 2008 SBS Server, we encountered a problem with the Quickbooks installation. What used to work with Quickbooks now showed an error message that there was a problem verifying the program’s signature.

Viewing the executable’s properties and looking at the Digital Signatures tab, it showed an error with the signature verification there too. I checked to executable from a 2008 R2 remote desktop server and the digital signature tab showed no problems.  Looking through the folder’s previous version for the executable from before the upgrade, it was observed that it was signed with SHA-1.  The new file was signed with SHA-256.

I was able to find the following information about code signing and 2008 SBS does not support SHA-256 signing. .  The software vendor was notified and said they’d work on signing with SHA-1 again on next release.

0 Comments   Networking SBS 2008


There is a problem on some Surface machines (Surface Pro 4 specifically) where the thumbnail previews on the taskbar disappear quickly… to quickly to be useful. The issue only occurs when using a power adapter and not when running on battery power. The solutions are:

  1. Disable the battery driver in the Device Manager (Microsoft Surface ACPI-Comliant Method Battery)
  2. Replace the power adapter (model 1625 seems to be problematic, and model 1706 seems to work fine)
  3. Update registry settings (see link below)

The issue and solution in detail can be found here

0 Comments   Networking Surface


Have you ever inadvertantly installed a toolbar or other adware during a Java update? There's a setting to stop this behavior. Open the Java Control Panel and select the Advanced tab. Then select "Suppress sponsor offers when installing or updating Java" at the bottom of the window.

0 Comments   Networking Java adware


Windows 7 will not install via a USB 3.0 port natively. In the past, there have been various solutions. Most old laptops had a mixture of 2.0 and 3.0 ports, so you just had to use a 2.0 port. You have also generally been able to go into the BIOS and change the USB 3.0 settings to either “legacy support” or “auto”. Unfortunately, there isn’t a setting in the new Lenovo laptops that you can change which allows for a 3.0 port to be seen as a 2.0 port for installation purposes.

I found an Intel utility that adds a 3.0 driver to your Windows USB installation media which worked great.

0 Comments   Networking Windows 7 usb 3.0


A few months ago, I installed the latest Exchange 2013 Cumulative Update that was available (CU14) on the Exchange cluster. Shortly after everything was brought back online, I noticed that the Content Index state was marked as failed. Trying to re-seed the content index from another database server wasn’t working either. I tried going through the process to completely rebuild the content index (stop the Exchange search services, delete the content index folder, restart the services) and it seemed to work as the crawling process took 12-16+ hours.

Unfortunately, it never did finish. I kept seeing errors in the event log that made it seem like crawling would finish, but there was a final process that continued to fail time and time again. The Exchange search services would crash constantly, restart, and crash once more – each time failing to bring the content index online.

It turns out that this was a known issue with Microsoft Exchange 2013 CU14 (as well as Exchange 2016 CU3). Microsoft has committed to providing the fix in the next CU, but until then there wasn’t really a workaround. The biggest impact this failure had was that searching public folders was a lot more difficult. You could go through the Advanced Find features and do a search that didn’t access the index, but the instant searches would fail to find anything.

CU15 was released in December and resolves this particular issue (among other issues that may have popped up in the last 3 months).



0 Comments   Networking Exchange 2013 Public Folders


A customer had several Cisco 2960 switches that were not managed and did not want us to come onsite to configure them for management. Since she had a Cisco console cable and the switches currently did not have a password, we were able to assist her remotely. The switches were already cabled together and in production. There was an intentional loop cabled between the switches for redundancy. This loop was being shut down by spanning-tree.

As I started entering the global configuration commands on the first switch, I lost my connection to their network because I was connected over the Internet. The commands I had just entered was “spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default”, which enables BPDU Guard globally. Since the switches were already cabled, when I enabled BPDU Guard globally, it put the interfaces connected to the other switches in an err-disabled state as it should. I walked the customer through removing the global spanning-tree commands and performing a shut/no shut on the interfaces connected to the other switches. This allowed my remote connection to come back online.

The proper order to perform these changes is to add the “spanning-tree portfast disable” command on all interfaces connected to other switches before enabling the global spanning-tree options. After the individual interfaces were configured, I entered “spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default” globally with no issues. 

0 Comments   Networking Cisco spanning tree