When I was upgrading to Windows 10, I decided to install from the Current Branch for Business ISO rather than an in-place upgrade since it'd been more than three years since I'd performed a clean install. Immediately after the Windows 10 install and activation, I decided to enable BitLocker since it seemed like a good idea to do this as early in the process as possible.

After enabling BitLocker and setting a PIN I rebooted and was presented with the BitLocker passcode screen. I entered the code and pressed Enter and the system stayed on the BitLocker screen. After several minutes, I forced power off and then powered the laptop on. The BitLocker screen appeared again with the same results after entering the code. After repeating this cycle several times, I pressed the escape key in order to enter the recovery key. Rather than prompting for a recovery key, the system booted directly into Windows and, after logging in, displayed an error message about C: not being encrypted because the key could not be obtained from the TPM chip.

I tried several things related to UEFI-only boot and UEFI/legacy boot in the laptop startup screens without any success. Every time we changed any boot options on the laptop and then saved and restarted, the system could not find the boot drive until we forced power off. Then, the boot drive could be found.

Finally, I installed Windows patches before trying to enable BitLocker and it worked perfectly.