Starting with Microsoft Outlook 2010, a new feature called “Suggested Contacts” automatically keeps track of everyone you send a message to, but isn’t in your Outlook contacts.  By default, when you sync Contacts with an iPhone, both “Contacts” and “Suggested Contacts” are copied over.

To Turn off the Suggested Contacts feature: in Outlook, click File > Options > Contacts, and uncheck “Automatically create Outlook contacts...”  Note: you will still need to remove any existing “Suggested Contacts” for them to be removed your iPhone contacts.